Knowing if a product is suitable for those with Coeliac Disease or gluten intolerance can be a tricky business at times. If a product isn't labelled gluten free or at its most basic level isn't gluten free (i.e. fresh produce) it takes a little more effort to determine whether it is suitable. So here are the three main tips;
Some products are naturally gluten free
There are many products out there that a naturally gluten free. This means that preparing food at home can be the best way to ensure you are adhering to your gluten free diet, we have some recipes that will assist with this. Some of these naturally gluten free foods include;
- fresh fruit and vegetables
- unprocessed meat, poultry and fish
- nuts and legumes
- plain milk and most plain dairy products
- fats and oils
- alternative gluten free grains; arrowroot, quinoa, buckwheat (yes it is gluten free), sorghum, rice, corn
A product is clearly labeled gluten free
Increasing numbers of products state they are gluten free on the packaging. Australian standards require manufacturers to test products labelled ‘gluten free’ and/or carrying the crossed grain symbol. The ‘gluten free’ claim is made after testing is carried out by an external laboratory. The crossed grain symbol is the endorsement symbol by Coeliac Australia that the product is gluten free, once again needing stringent testing. The difference is the test results. To carry the ‘gluten free’ claim, the product must contain less than 3ppm of gluten (referring to the sensitivity of testing). To carry the endorsed logo, the product must contain less than 20ppm of gluten. The Coeliac Society has recently reported that evidence based medical research has found this to be a safe level for people with coeliac disease.
Although some products contain ingredients that are on the avoid list such as soy sauce, if the product is labelled gluten free this means it has been tested and as a result no gluten was detected. In other words a 'gluten free' marking in fact trumps the ingredient listing making life a little less complicated for those who are constantly reading labels.
Some products are gluten free by ingredient
There are a number of products out there that are gluten free by ingredient but aren't specifically labelled gluten free, for example some yoghurts. When purchasing these products check the ingredient list and other statements to ensure everything listed is gluten free; no wheat, barley, rye, oats or any ingredients derived from them. Be sure to avoid any products that contain an 'either/or' statement for example 'starch (wheat or corn)'; these are not safe for those who are unable to eat gluten.
Australian Food Standards Code requires that any product with an ingredient that contains gluten must declare it. Therefore if a source grain is not identified in the ingredients, for example if starch is listed but not specified to be derived from a gluten containing grain, then it gets a tick. In summary if you don't see wheat, barley, rye or oats listed in the product's ingredients or in any other clauses on the packaging, you are safe to consume it.
There are some exceptions to the rule detailed above - any ingredients ending in -ose, e.g. dextrose and glucose. Which, although sometimes derived from gluten containing grains, are so heavily processed there is no detectable gluten remaining. Caramel colour (150) also falls in this category.
Beware of statements and clauses
There is one other area on packaging that you should check and this is the 'allergens', 'contains' and 'may contain' clauses. These are generally found below the ingredient list and should always be checked for gluten containing sources. The different types of clauses and statements can be tricky so we have listed them below with detailed description on determining what is safe to consume;
- 'Contains' clause - Products that contain anything derived from a gluten containing grain, for example glucose, dextrose or caramel colour that list wheat as the source will then have a 'contains' clause listing gluten or wheat. In this case if you can clearly see the ingredient containing wheat is actually gluten free because of the manufacturing process, you are able to eat it. Icecream is a good example of this, most have a 'contains' clause stating wheat but if you look at the ingredients list and the only source of wheat in the product is glucose (which through processing becomes gluten free), it is safe. Please be aware though that if it isn't a gluten free ingredient (e.g. wheat starch) then the product should not be consumed.
- 'May contain' and 'allergens' clause - Many products can be made using gluten free ingredients but they might be manufactured on plant and equipment that was used to make something that contained gluten or in some cases gluten containing products are used to clean that plant and equipment. Carefully check the packaging for 'allergen' and 'may contain' clauses to warn if a product has come into contact with gluten, this is the same clause that states nuts, lactose or eggs may be present. If gluten, wheat, barley, rye or oats are mentioned the product is not safe for consumption by those with Coeliac Disease or a gluten intolerance. Please note that there is a marked difference between the 'contains' clause and 'may contain' clause. If a product 'may contain' or lists allergens of wheat or gluten it is not suitable for those who require a gluten free diet.
The 'may contain' statement is used at the discretion of the manufacturer and if they are at all unsure, they may include it. It is often used by manufacturers to cover themselves legally as to the unknown contaminants that may be in their manufacturing plant. As a result there are a lot of products out there which may be gluten free or could be with small changes or testing but this requires investment on the manufacturers behalf.
Learning to and making a habit of reading labels is a difficult but very important step in having a successful gluten free diet. Never stop reading labels, even on your regular products, as manufacturers have no responsibility to openly inform the public of changes to ingredients - for a case in point read this article about Cadbury, their recent labelling changes are disappointing to the chocolate lover. This may also mean that you discover something you once loved you can now eat, if manufacturers improve their processes to be gluten free friendly.